Almost anyone fate did not bestow great and continual success. Only the happiness that comes easily, is persistent and accompanied us to the end. Seneca the Younger (born Lucius Annaeus Seneca, called. Philosopher, 4 BC - 65 AD)

Your 5 factor personality report

Your 5 factor personality report

Rafal, your most unique quality is that you are


You are the kind of person others depend on. You're competent, self-disciplined, and able to carry through with any plan you create. You've just got it together. You're also good at weighing the pros and cons of any situation and making sound, well-informed decisions. Compared to others who of all test takers have this unique combination of personality strengths.

How do we know this about you?
The questions you answered on the test measured your scores on 5 overarching personality qualities, or factors, as well as the 30 specific personality traits that make up those 5 factors. We then compared all of your scores to the thousands of other people who have taken this test to determine what sets you apart from the crowd.

What are these "5 Factors?" What do the five factors represent? The easiest way to remember them is to use the acronym "OCEAN," which stands for

O: Openness to experience
C: Conscientiousness
E: Extraversion
A: Agreeableness
N: Negative emotionality

These five factors have been studied for decades and make up the most widely accepted theoretical model for understanding personality. You have a score along each of these five dimensions — one per letter. Here is how you scored:

The following sections explain what each of these factors is in more detail, and shows you the six personality traits that combine together to make up each of the factors (a total of 30 traits in all).

Factor 1: Openness to experience

Which traits make up my score on this factor? Your level of openness is determined by six traits: how imaginative you are, how much you appreciate art and aesthetics, how in touch you are with your emotions, how much you like new experiences, how broad your interests are, and how mutable your values are.

As with all the factors, they measure you on a continuum of different qualities. Someone who is at one end of the scale has one set of qualities while someone at the other end has a set of different qualities.

Based on your scores, we can tell that you are open to experiences, and you have a wide variety of interests. In fact, you're more likely to seek a new experience for the first time, rather than do something you're already familiar with. When it comes right down to it, you love to learn and you're highly creative.

There are six different personality traits that primarily determine your level of openness. Here is a bar chart that depicts how strong each of these personality traits are in you.

Openness Trait 1: Values

Most people have some values that they are willing to reconsider from time to time. But there are other values that are harder to question — especially those you've been practicing for years or that have helped you make difficult decisions in the past. Generally speaking, however, some people are more willing than others to reexamine their values.

Your Values rating is 100 out of 100. This means that you're relatively flexible and are willing to change your beliefs if you're faced with evidence that they may no longer be applicable or functional. You want to believe what is true, rather than hide behind untrue beliefs that protect you or make you feel more comfortable. You're open to truly questioning your outlook. When it comes down to it, you're all about possibility rather than subscribing to a rigid, unchangeable set of values, and you use that to make the best out of life.

Openness Trait 2: Fantasy

Your Fantasy rating is 88 out of 100. This means that, relative to others, you have an active imagination. You're more of a daydreamer than a realist, and you love to think up new ideas and to imagine new possibilities. It also means that you're more curious than others and are able to find beauty in most of the things you see. The only hitch is that in the absence of a variety of interesting experiences you may begin to grow bored. Also, if the task on hand is only mildly of interest, procrastination can kick in.

Openness Trait 3: Aesthetics

Your Aesthetics rating is 75 out of 100. This means that, relative to others, you value the beauty of things, especially when it comes to art or interior design. You have a natural love of these things that just kicks in whenever you're in the presence of something truly beautiful. This can at times prove to be a little dangerous to your pocketbook if you're so taken by an object you have to purchase it for yourself instead of appreciating it in it's own right. But your desire to see the beauty in things also allows you to see the beauty in others and to consequently treat them with more kindness and generosity.

Openness Trait 4: Feelings

Everyone has feelings, but some tend to pay more attention to them than others. Your Feelings rating is 74 out of 100. You believe that emotions are valuable and are less likely than others to bottle up any emotion, deeming it "bad" or "wrong" to experience. You're also more likely to learn from your feelings regardless of what they are. What's more, you believe in people. You are the person friends come to when things get rough, partly because you're caring and prepared for any emotional situation, and partly because of your belief in human nature itself.

Openness Trait 5: Ideas

Everyone has ideas. But as a personality trait, the word "ideas" refers to how broad your interests are and how strongly you're driven to explore your ideas and consider new thoughts.

Your Ideas rating is 63 out of 100. This indicates that you've got a strong curiosity that propels you forward. Sometimes particular experiences will fuel your strong motivation to understand the world, and suddenly you'll be exploring a whole new set of possibilities. When something really piques your curiosity, you will work hard to figure it out, knowing that just the process of searching for the answer will teach you about how the world works.

Openness Trait 6: Actions

The word "actions" for the purposes of this kind of personality test means the extent to which you gravitate toward new and unusual experiences or stick with what you know you like — with what is familiar.

Your Actions rating is 13 out of 100. This indicates that you prefer to stick to what you know you like. In life, everything has a proper place, and once you find that proper place, you'll use it. You'd rather know ahead of time what you're getting, rather than being surprised with something that — chances are — won't be as good as what you know you like already. This makes you a more predictable person, which is highly comforting to those who, like you, are not thrilled when confronted by a new experience and its subsequent unfamiliarity.

Factor 2: Conscientiousness

Which traits make up my score on this factor? Conscientiousness is a word that describes a conglomeration of several traits, including your level of confidence, how orderly you are, the extent to which you are dependable, how driven you are to be successful, how much self discipline you have, and whether you think through things before you act. Overall, it is, essentially, accountability.

Your answers to the test indicate that people depend on you and know that you can be counted on. Most people appreciate this trait very much. You have the drive to do well and the follow-through to actually make it happen. When your conscientiousness gets the best of you, you can tend toward perfectionism and single-mindedness, but even these attributes are very useful and positive.

There are six different personality traits that primarily determine your level of conscientiousness. Here is a bar chart that depicts how strong each of these personality traits are in you.

Conscientiousness Trait 1: Competence

Competence is the feeling that you know what you're doing, that you're able to do what you need to do, and that you can do it well.

Your Competence rating is 100 out of 100. This means that you feel competent in general and know that there are some things that you really excel at. This is great, because a sense of competence is also associated with higher self-esteem. A greater sense of competency allows for freer exploration of ideas: if you're afraid of failing, it is harder to try new things or consider new ideas. It is also a practical trait to have in that, when you believe that you can handle anything, difficult and stressful situations are easier to deal with.

Conscientiousness Trait 2: Order

When it comes to personality, order means you know where all your belongings are. You know what is going to happen and when. When things are orderly, you can find what you need when you need it.

Your Orderly rating is 99 out of 100. You have it together. You have things set up so that your life doesn't feel like a mess half of the time. You're organized, which is helpful both at home and at work, and in cooperating with anyone else who isn't quite so organized. To be organized, you need to be prepared, which you almost always are. You're also likely to establish routines that support your desire for order. At times, this can lead to something of a rut but usually is very useful and positive.

Conscientiousness Trait 3: Achievement-Striving

When a person desires great success, or always seems to be reaching for the highest star in the sky, they're likely to score high in the achievement-striving trait.

Your Achievement rating is 98 out of 100. This means that you care about your achievements in life. You don't want to look back at the end of your life only to realize you didn't accomplish anything. This may make you a little competitive at times, but that only adds to the excitement and thrill you get from accomplishing your goal or at least working in that direction. To be as achievement-oriented as you are requires an ability to imagine the future. If you can't picture yourself as succeeding at whatever you're working toward, it makes it harder to actually get there. Working to accomplish something, however, can take away your time and energy and can even shut you down emotionally at times — so keep a careful eye on yourself and your actions when striving to achieve any goals you may have and make sure your life is balanced.

Conscientiousness Trait 4: Deliberation

To deliberate is to weigh the pros and cons before making a decision and to really think things through before you do something.

Your Deliberation rating is 91 out of 100. You like to think things through. Rather than jumping to conclusions or making up your mind and then not taking in any more evidence to the contrary, you prefer to weigh the possibilities and then, only when you're through collecting information, make a decision. Others are likely to experience you as levelheaded and rational but may not understand where all your questions come from. Because of this, you can also come off as relatively serious to others; they may interpret your questions and reluctance to take things on faith as unnecessarily skeptical.

Conscientiousness Trait 5: Dutifulness

To be dutiful is to be reliable and to follow through on your obligations.

Your Dutiful rating is 88 out of 100. You're the kind of person other people can count on. You're "the rock" that others lean on. Whatever the occasion, you're there to help, there for your friends, there when needed. You have your stuff together — otherwise how could you really follow through on your desire to help? Typically, being dutiful means you're honest, too. And as if all this wasn't good enough, you're also unlikely to look down on others. As long as you don't forget that no one can always be "the rock" and that you also need to lean on others at times, you can lead a balanced life. You can know that it's not just you who's holding down the fort.

Conscientiousness Trait 6: Self-Discipline

We're all faced with things we don't want to do from time to time. And what do most of us do in that situation? Procrastinate. You may, for instance, get sidetracked by something more "fun" and conveniently forget what it was that you had originally intended to do. Where do you lie on the continuum of self-discipline?

Your Self-discipline rating is 50 out of 100. This means you're relatively less likely to procrastinate, and that in general, you are able to count on yourself to get things done and to do them on time. You're able to pass up life's temptations when they could potentially distract you from a present goal. In this context, to be self-disciplined means to be organized and to be able to remain calm in the face of confusion or high levels of stress, so that crisis times don't pull you off course. Self-control and the ability to delay gratification are key here.

Factor 3: Extraversion

Which traits make up my score on this factor?
Picture the most social person you've ever met — most likely on the lookout for leadership positions, involved in everything, and a friend to everyone. You know the type: The Big Man — or Woman — On Campus. We all share this outgoing nature or extraversion to a greater or lesser extent. The opposite of extraversion is introversion, which is associated with more quiet introspection and more alone time. People who are introverted tend to focus more on depth rather than breadth, which is opposite of an extravert. For example, you'd rather know a few things inside and out rather than be the proverbial Jack of all trades and master of none.

Your answers indicate that you are more introverted than others. You're more likely to keep your opinions to yourself, preferring not to be the center of attention. You get energy from spending time alone, collecting your thoughts, and looking inward. High intensity social situations can be draining for you. When it comes to work, you're more likely to want to work independently and to be able to take time to think through the issues on your own. Working in a group setting can be distracting to your thought process.

There are six different personality traits that primarily determine your level of extraversion. Here is a bar chart that depicts how strong each of these personality traits are in you.

Extraversion Trait 1: Activity

Some people are always on the go and can barely take a moment to relax. Others arrange their lives so that they have ample time to spend leisurely, without any obligations or interruptions.

Your Activity rating is 75 out of 100. You're the one who's several steps ahead of the rest. You've got a fire in your belly that keeps you on the go and keeps you active and looking for something interesting and adventurous to do. It's even better if you've got someone to share your drive and to do all of those activities with. Your determination and search for excitement spurs others on and gets them going.

Extraversion Trait 2: Positive Emotions

The trait of "positive emotions" refers to whether or not you generally feel good about your life. Is your mood usually positive and light or dark and heavy? People high in positive emotions love their life; people who are low tend to have more negative thoughts and feelings.

Your Positive Emotions rating is 63 out of 100. You light up people's lives. You bring hope and trust to any situation, and you believe that anything is possible. Generally, though your convictions are strong, you're not bothered when other people disagree with you — or, more accurately — you don't let it get in your way. You know people mean well but that doesn't mean they're right. Your kind heart and positive spirit keep you and others around you feeling good about life and its possibilities.

Extraversion Trait 3: Assertiveness

Assertiveness is generally considered to be a positive trait. It is the ability to share your opinions with others and to speak up for yourself, especially when it counts.

Your Assertiveness rating is 50 out of 100. This means that you're able to state your opinions clearly and to stand up for what you believe in. No one is going to walk all over you because you have boundaries and are not afraid to put them up when someone is too pushy or inconsiderate. You know who you are, and you're not afraid of putting yourself out there. You've learned what to expect from people, and you have come to trust your own opinion over others' opinions, especially when it comes to your own personal life.

Extraversion Trait 4: Excitement-Seeking

People who are excitement seeking just can't wait to get their hands on a new thrill. They find the exciting element in everything, and if it's not thrilling enough, they search for more.

Your Excitement-seeking rating is 38 out of 100. This means that you don't have a lot of energy for trying new things or working to find the perfect great feeling. You're more laid-back about the things you do — you don't have high expectations for a "night out" or what constitutes a "good time". You just want to enjoy your life in the quiet way it may play itself out. Even so, sometimes it would be great if excitement just came to you since you're not inclined to search it out. Since thrilling experiences don't necessarily just land in your lap, you might have to do some work if you decide you want more of them in your life.

Extraversion Trait 5: Gregariousness

This trait refers to the extent to which you put yourself "out there" socially. Are you the one walking up to others at a party, introducing yourself and shaking hands? Or are you the one who prefers to hang back and wait and see what happens?

Your Gregarious rating is 25 out of 100. This indicates that you'd rather be the one who is approached, over being the one out there introducing yourself to the crowd. You're not likely to spontaneously shout out your opinions while in a group setting, which can be comforting to those who fear negative reactions from others when they share something. It can take you a while to warm up to others you don't know, and when meeting new people, you can feel awkward at times.

Extraversion Trait 6: Warmth

Generally, people who are warm are loving, giving people who really enjoy the company of others.

Your Warmth rating is 13 out of 100. This indicates that you're not as warm and friendly as some other people are. You might have your bad days, or even bad weeks, that make you want to turn inward until you're feeling better. It can be too much to reach out to others at times, especially when they are overly emotional or needy.

Factor 4: Agreeableness

Which traits make up my score on this factor? This factor generally refers to how positively you view other people and what kind of an effect you have on others. For instance, being guarded and suspicious has a less "agreeable" effect than being open and trusting does. Being compliant and gentle is more agreeable than being stubborn and harsh. Of course, there is a time and a place for being stubborn and harsh; this factor captures whether you generally lean more toward or away from being "agreeable."

Your answers indicate that you are less agreeable than others, meaning that you have a strong idea about what your needs are and what you like to accomplish and that you don't necessarily like to follow the rules of the group or postpone your needs in order to help others meet theirs. When you set your mind to something, it is hard to change it, especially if you suspect the person trying to change it is up to something dishonest.

There are six different personality traits that primarily determine your level of agreeableness. Here is a bar chart that depicts how strong each of these personality traits are in you.

Agreeableness Trait 1: Modesty

There are some people who are great and let the world know about it. And there are others who are great but don't toot their own horn in public — and in general, aren't tempted to.

Your Modesty rating is 63 out of 100. This means that you don't let success inflate your ego. Getting a compliment doesn't send you soaring to the moon with thoughts about how wonderful you are. You are more likely to say something positive about another person's good qualities than you are to get others to pay attention to your greatness. You're also less worried about impressing others — more likely to stick to the truth rather than exaggerating to get others' attention. This also makes you less likely to try to "win" — if you're not making great claims about your greatness, you don't have to worry about defending that greatness every time there is a chance to potentially lose at something. This makes it easier for others to trust you, knowing that you're not likely to "one-up" them just to inflate your own ego.

Agreeableness Trait 2: Tender-Mindedness

Your friend is crying and she wants your help. You can react in many different ways. On one extreme you have the person who reacts with an articulate and rational plan for how to fix the problem. On the other extreme, you have the person who reacts emotionally, supporting the friend through their sympathy. Neither reaction is wrong; they are both helpful in different ways.

Your Tender-Mindedness rating is 40 out of 100. This means you're relatively more rational and less tender-minded. You're very logical, knowing that this is something you can rely on to get you through any difficult situation. And even if you don't consciously think it's the better way to be, you're just more naturally inclined to rely on logic to guide you in the face of an important decision. You are also not prone to take your time meandering about when it comes to making such decisions. You weigh the pros against the cons, and then based on the facts, you make a decision. Of course not all decisions can be dealt with in this way; this is simply your preferred method.

Agreeableness Trait 3: Straight-Forwardness

People who get right to the point are straightforward. Beating around the bush, telling a complete story before giving the "bottom line," and so forth, are not so straightforward.

Your Straight-forward rating is 39 out of 100. So, you're relatively indirect. Especially when it comes to embarrassing or difficult topics, you prefer to buffer the blow by not saying what you think outright. You don't want to bully or push your beliefs onto other people. Being indirect can help so that the other person doesn't feel overwhelmed by what you are saying. Plus, most of the time you're not fighting to have your say or speak your truth; you're simply trying to have a decent day. Being direct can stir up a mess if you're not careful, which you have undoubtedly learned either through your own experience or through observing others. The end result is an indirect method of communicating.

Agreeableness Trait 4: Trust

How you look at the world influences what you see in it. If you expect people to be dishonest and hurtful, you will be quick to recognize it when a person's behavior might fit that description. If you expect people to be honest and kind, you will be more liable to notice that behavior instead. It's basically a "what you see is what you get" type of philosophy. Depending on how others have treated you in the past, you may have a keener eye for distrustful behavior than you do for honesty or kindness.

Your Trust rating is 38 out of 100. This means that you doubt the honesty and integrity of most people. When someone appears to be doing something nice, you wonder whether there is some other ill intention behind it. Generally, you have learned that often in life, having positive expectations can often just lead to disappointment. Rather than feel disappointed, you've adjusted your perspective so that you simply expect fewer positive things to occur. You do well in situations that don't require deep trust — interactions with others that don't require baring your soul are much more comfortable for you.

Agreeableness Trait 5: Compliance

Compliance is the opposite of competitive. If you're playing with someone who doesn't mind losing and doesn't need to win, you're seeing compliance in action. More generally, compliance is the tendency to go along with things, to avoid creating resistance.

Your Compliance rating is 25 out of 100. Even if you wanted to go along with what other people want you to do — which you don't — it would be difficult for you. You've got a lot going on, and a lot you want to accomplish, and simply going along with someone else's plans just doesn't fit with who you are or what you are planning for your future. When someone gets too pushy, this can lead you to react quickly and negatively, bringing out that slight temper of yours. But mostly, you're just energetically pursuing your own dreams, and being overly compliant would make it more difficult to reach your goals.

Agreeableness Trait 6: Altruism

Volunteering to help others and lending a helping hand when you can are examples of altruism in action. Just listening to a friend on the phone when they are in a crisis can be an act of altruism as well. We're all altruistic to a certain extent — however, some people make it a way of life to help others, whereas most of us simply do what we can as things come to us.

Your Altruism rating is 0 out of 100. You prefer to not muddle in the affairs of others. Sure, it may seem that a person is in need of help, but you don't know their situation. Plus you've got your own life to worry about. And, on top of this, you know you can affect others just by doing little things. You don't have to go out of your way to volunteer or help out. Some of that stuff happens naturally anyway.

Factor 4: Negative Emotionality

Which traits make up my score on this factor? Negative emotionality represents the extent to which you react to negative stimuli. In other words, when something negative hits you, how do you respond? Does it ruin your day or does it barely register? Most people fall between these two extremes.

Your answers indicate that you are resilient. Something hits you and it doesn't get all the way in. When others would react with anger or embarrassment, you are more likely to step back and not take it personally. Most stressful situations are more challenging to you than they are overwhelming, and represent an opportunity for you to show how competent you really are.

There are six different personality traits that primarily determine your level of negative emotionality. Here is a bar chart that depicts how strong each of these personality traits are in you.

Negative Emotionality Trait 1: Worry

Some people generally feel relaxed and carefree; others, anxious. This personality trait is the continuum between these two extremes.

Your Worry rating is 88 out of 100. This means that you're generally prone to worry when things get rough. The stress is high, and the worry kicks in. You may also be a little unhappy with your life in general, which feeds the worry, and which in turn feeds the general unhappiness. On bad days, you're likely to think nothing works out the way you want it to and that everything seems to be difficult. And when you're thinking everything will turn out wrong, there is naturally a lot to think about. By focusing on what could go right, you may find that things take a turn for the better for you.

Negative Emotionality Trait 2: Vulnerability

The heat is on, people are starting to panic, and everyone is stressed. Are you likely to be the one who is freaking out or the one sitting calming in the corner telling everyone, "All things pass — there's no reason to be upset!" Or, are you the one screaming, "I knew it! The world is coming to an end!" When times are stressful, falling apart typically just makes the situation more difficult to handle. Resilience and vulnerability are two ends of the spectrum of vulnerability.

Your Vulnerability rating is 50 out of 100. You're on the vulnerable side of the spectrum, meaning that stressful times can sometimes get the best of you. You're already on the look out for the next thing that will come along, but somehow it always catches you off guard and overwhelms you. Part of this has to do with your tendency in stressful situations to focus in on how you feel, rather than what you think and how to rationally deal with the situation. While emotions can really help in decision-making, when things are unusually stressful, they may be more distracting or disabling than helpful.

Negative Emotionality Trait 3: Anger

This trait refers to how quickly you grow angry and how likely you are to get angry at all.

Your Anger rating is 38 out of 100. It takes quite a bit to get you going. You're not likely to fly off the handle at the slightest provocation. This is in part because you're generally easygoing about things, not needing to prove yourself all the time. Therefore, someone can be provocative and you're not necessarily going to take it personally.

Negative Emotionality Trait 4: Self-consciousness

When in an uncertain situation, you can either put yourself out there or hold back and wait to see what happens. A perfect example is in the proverbial classroom when the teacher asks a question and no one is 100% sure that they know the answer. It is the un-self-conscious person who speaks up. On the other hand, the self-conscious person shrinks into the seat and prays not to be called on.

Your Self-conscious rating is 26 out of 100. You don't mind being the center of attention sometimes. The spotlight can be on you and you're not likely to shrivel up in embarrassment. You can laugh at yourself because you don't misinterpret inane comments as personal insults. This makes you easy to be around and easy to joke with because others will be able to sense that you don't have heightened sensitivity in this way.

Negative Emotionality Trait 5: Discouragement

When something gets in your way, are you likely to give up or keep going? When you're excited about your ideas, is it easy for someone to come along and discourage you from believing them, or are you likely to continue holding your beliefs despite what others are saying?

Your Discouragement rating is 25 out of 100. You're not one to back down from reaching a goal you feel strongly about. People may try to dissuade you, but you aren't likely to budge. You can take a lot of stress and a lot of criticism before you'll lapse into a frenzy of self-doubt. This is usually due to an internal security about who it is that you are rather than an inflated confidence or rigidity. You're able to sort out what is nonsense from what is good advice, especially when it comes to your own personal goals.

Negative Emotionality Trait 6: Impulsiveness

You walk into a store and see an object you've been coveting for months. Do you buy it? Well, if you were highly impulsive, you would have already purchased it by now. If you're not, you might be able to weigh the pros and cons before making a decision. In fact, if you're not impulsive at all, it just might take you a year or two to decide.

Your Impulsiveness rating is 24 out of 100. This means that you're inclined to think first and act later. You're not likely to suddenly find that you have grossly overspent your budget or that you've said something that yet again you wish you could take back. You know how you're acting and are in control of your emotions, and this makes you more levelheaded than others.

This is likely to be one of the most extensive analyses you've ever done of yourself, and your personality. It's important to know that there are no right or wrong factors or traits; you are who you are, and this test can mostly be used as a tool to help you understand why you may do the things you do. There is a great deal of history behind the Five Factor Model, or, as you have come to know it, OCEAN.

Science behind the 5-Factor IPIP Personality Test The Five Factor Model is the most researched model of personality. There is a consensus among personality theorists that this model is the best current description of the structure of personality. The dimensions of this model, which describe five major domains or traits, identify the most important ways in which individuals differ across an infinite possibility of difference. This model is also referred to as OCEAN, which represents Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Negative emotionality.

The development of this personality model has evolved over the last 70 years with numerous contributors. A few of them will be mentioned but there are many others who played an important role. In 1934, Lewis L. Thurstone came up with five individual common factors from sixty adjectives describing personality. It was later said that he never followed up on his findings. A second theorist named Raymond Cattell in 1943 discovered sixteen primary factors and eight secondary traits. Donald Fiske in 1949 modified Cattell's work to form a five-factor solution. Other contributors after Cattell's work include E.C. Tupes in 1961, E.F. Borgotta in 1964, and Warren Norman in 1967. Unfortunately in the "'60s," Norman's work was ignored because society shifted to a greater concern for social relevance.

The big breakthrough happened in the '80s by a man named Lewis R. Goldberg. At the Western Psychological Association meeting he announced that five factors of personality were stable across studies. This theory has become to be known as the "Big Five." He presented this new message to Paul T. Costa and R.R. McCrea and they launched the first Five Factor inventory in 1985. It was noted that they changed the name of three of the factors from what Goldberg had presented. This model is not only useful for an individual's curiosity about their own personality but can be applied in a clinical setting.

Tickle has used this Five Factor inventory model as a basis for the 5-Factor IPIP Personality Test. IPIP refers to a large pool of questions that have been tested extensively and have been widely used in order to measure the five factors. Tickle tested similar items through an extensive survey of more than 120 questions, eventually whittling it down to just the 60 that you will find on the test.